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This is a crucial aspect in the production cycle which involve the transformation of raw materials harvested from the farm into valuable marketable product. It is important because it serve as value addition to the harvested product and also attract higher market value compare to unprocessed harvested product.
This aspect of agro processing can be grouped into
1. Grain Processing- This is the transformation of harvested grains like maize, rice, sorghum, soy bean, ground-nut etc into improved products. An example is the transformation of maize grain into pop-corn, custard powder and cornflakes amongst others.
2. Horticultural processing- Due to the highly perishable nature of fruits, vegetables, spices and plantation crops, they are often processed into more preservable forms. Oranges, pineapples, and other fruits can be processed for their juice with their residue used as animal feed, plantain are processed into chips.
3. Root and tuber processing- The storage of this group of food poses great problems to farmers. For preservation sake, tubers like cassava can be transformed into chips, garri, fufu, flour etc. Irish potatoes are processed into the Potato snacks such as Pringles.
4. Seed processing- Preservation of seeds for future planting use can only be made possible by reducing the high water content while maintaining its viability. This enhances the multiplication of high quality improved breeding seeds developed by research institutes and is stored in seed banks.Highly valuable oil can also be extracted from the seeds for various industrial use e.g. sesame oil and coconut oil.